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Later, more professionally trained and committed scholars such as Adolph Bandelier, the "Father of Southwestern Archaeology" (1881), Jesse Walter Fewkes (1891), and Frederick Webb Hodge (1893) undertook scientific studies of Southwestern pueblo sites and published their findings in scholarly journals. The Anasazi Tradition: This group of prehistoric Indians lived in the high plateau country of the San Juan, Little Colorado, and upper Rio Grande valleys.
This group of scholars was succeeded by still another era of archaeologists: Alfred V Kidder (1910), Earl H. Relying primarily upon the dry-farming of corn, they also used natural runoff from springs and the heads of streams to water other crops.
They quite possibly first inhabited this general region about the time of Christ and have continued down to the present day. The Patayan Tradition: Also known as the "Yuman" culture, these people lived in the Colorado River Valley below the Grand Canyon.
Most ethnologists believe that the modern Southwest Pueblo Indians descended from the Anasazi. They, too, may have descended from the Cochise Culture, and, like the Anasazi, they relied upon the natural runoff of water from the area's mountain streams to grow their crops. The Sinagua Tradition: This culture arose in the lower part of the Little Colorado Valley, near the San Francisco Mountains area. A blend of Hohokam irrigation methods and Anasazi Pueblo architecture characterized the Verde Valley culture. The few found artifacts indicate that this group may have endured as long as fifteen hundred years. Patayan is the only Southwest sedentary culture which lacked permanent houses, for these people lived in brush huts which have not survived the ravages of time and the overflow of the Colorado River.
They used the waters of the Salt and Gila rivers to irrigate their crops. Ethnologists think it is possible that the Hohokam may have been the ancestors of the modem-day Pima and Tohono O'odham (Papago) peoples. The Mogollon Tradition: Though not so advanced as either the Anasazi or the Hohokam traditions, the Mogollon culture deserves recognition because it appears to be the Southwest prehistoric group which offers the earliest evidence of intensive horticulture, a durable material culture, and a settled mode of life. The origin of these people is unclear, as is the explanation for their departure. Except for the top half of the "Northern Peripheral" group and a slice of the "Eastern Peripheral" group, all of these prehistoric peoples lived within the area designated in this essay as the "physiographic Southwest." The expression "peripheral" speaks for itself.
Displaying sparse but convincing evidence, archaeologists have identified several very old sites of human habitation within the Southwest.
Archaeologists refer to these particular groups of people, who lived in this region prior to about two thousand years ago, as 'Ancient Cultures" or the "Archaic Period" (see map 13).
No other region within the United States possesses such an old and conspicuous vestige of sixteenth- to nineteenth-century Spanish empire influence than does the Southwest.
Dating back to 1539, the impact of Hispanic occupation can be seen throughout the region, particularly in the upper Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico.
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